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Understanding Infectious Diseases: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

Diseases caused by the presence of microorganisms like parasites, fungi, viruses, or bacteria in our body are coined as infectious diseases. These unwanted organisms, also known as pathogens, enter our bodies from various outside sources and infect us, causing health issues. Determining infectious diseases was extremely difficult, but thanks to advancements in medicine, a few tests from the infectious disease panel can quickly determine the type of disease one has.

Infectious diseases can cause trouble because they spread quickly within the host’s body and to other people with whom they come into contact. This makes it necessary to understand the cause, symptoms, and prevention of such diseases.

Causes Of Infectious Diseases

Under medical science, we know about four types of infectious diseases, namely – bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic. The common causes of these infectious diseases are as follows: 

  1. Direct And Indirect Contact

Infectious diseases can be transmitted through direct or indirect contact. Daily life practices like handshaking, kissing, eating from the same plate, drinking from the same bottle, and even touching a doorknob with possible pathogens can cause infections.

  1. Airborne Transmission

The best example of an airborne infection is the recent COVID-19. As the name suggests, these diseases spread through the air and enter our bodies through the respiratory tract. It happens when one inhales in a region with air droplets exhaled by an infected person. The common cold, influenza, and all types of SARS-CoV-2 diseases occur because of this.

  1. Vector-Borne Transmission

Diseases caused by bites from other organisms like mosquitoes (malaria, dengue), ticks (Lyme disease), or fleas fall into this category. In such cases, the organisms are referred to as vectors or carriers. 

  1. Sexual Transmission

Diseases like HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and hepatitis B among others, are transmitted through unprotected sexual contact. However, this does not mean complete safety if you have protected sex.

Symptoms Of Infectious Diseases

Though only tests from the infectious disease panel can truly identify the infection, you should be on the lookout for the common symptoms caused by infectious diseases.

  1. Fever – The most common way of defending the body from pathogens. 
  2. Fatigue – When the body fights an infection, it drains energy, resulting in fatigue.
  3. Cough and Sore Throat– Respiratory tract infections result in mildto severe coughs, which can be both dry and wet. A sore throat makes it hard to swallow.
  4. Shortness of Breath – If you are feeling any other symptoms along with shortness of breath, it’s time to see the doctor immediately.
  5. Nasal Congestion and Headache – They usually occur together; however, they can also be a result of a common cold or allergies.

In addition, chills, sweating, nausea, vomiting, muscle and joint pain, changes in urination, and neurological symptoms (like confusion or seizures) can also depict infections.

Prevention From Infectious Diseases

One can easily infectious disease panel by following simple measures. The basic idea is to keep in mind the usual ways of transmission.

  1. Vaccination – It is a must to take the proper vaccinations and ensure your child gets all the doses within the age limit.
  2. Hygiene – Simple steps like washing hands before and after eating, using tissues while coughing or sneezing, and using masks and sanitizers ensure that you stay free from germs entering the body through your hands and respiratory tract.


In addition, staying in a sanitized environment, following travel precautions, and following safe sex practices prevent  infectious disease by far. Staying medically sound and protected is all about staying informed and keeping personal and environmental safety in mind.

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